[Contents]

Key to Element Types: Empty and Non-Empty

Empty: An element that contains no data but, rather, is an instruction to the browser to perform some action, such as force a line break or display an image. Empty elements in XHTML are terminated with a trailing slash, as in <br />.

Non-empty: An element that contains data. All nonempty elements in XHTML must be closed, as in this example:

<p>This is a paragraph, it contains data and is therefore non-empty.</p>

Element: a

Description: Used for linking to external documents or intrapage references

Element Type: Inline, nonempty

Example:

<a href="http://www.pearson.com/">Go to the Pearson Web Site</a>

<a name="reference1">Go to Reference One</a>

Tips: There are no known tips for this element. You cannot have an anchor element within another anchor element.

Element: abbr

Description: Denotes abbreviations and is especially useful for accessibility purposes

Element Type: Inline, nonempty

Example:

<abbr title="department">dept.</abbr>

Tips: This element is well supported in contemporary browsers and often is used in place of acronym because of poor support for that element.

Element: acronym

Description: Denotes acronyms and is especially useful for accessibility purposes

Element Type: Inline, nonempty

Example:

<acronym title="Hypertext Markup Language">HTML</a>

Tips: Support for acronym is spotty, at best. At this time, it is being dropped from the XHTML 2.0 specification. As a result, it's best to use abbr in all cases of abbreviations and acronyms.

Element: address

Description: Denotes an address

Element Type: Inline, nonempty

Example:

<address>1600 Pennsylvania Avenue</address>

Tips: This element is very widely supported. Browsers will typically display text marked with the address element in italics.

Element: applet

Description: Denotes an applet

Element Type: Block, nonempty

Example:

<applet code="nervoustext.class"
width="300" height="60">
<param name="text" value="Java Comes Alive" />
</applet>

Tips: The element is deprecated in favor of the object element but can be used in XHTML 1.0.

Element: area

Description: Denotes an input area within an image map

Element Type: Structural (map), empty

Example:

<area shape="circle" href="http://domain.com/" coords="0,10,8" />

Tips: This element is well supported in contemporary browsers.

Element: b

Description: Presentational element used to denote bold text

Element Type: Inline, nonempty

Example:

<b>This sentence will appear in bold text.</b>

Tips: This element is widely supported but considered presentational; the strong element should be used in its place.

Element: base

Description: Defines the base URI information for relative paths within a document. Also used to define the base target for linked frames within the document. Placed within the head element.

Element Type: Structural (head), empty

Examples:

<base href="http://domain.com/" />

<base target="_top" />

Tips: Very broad support exists for this element.

Element: basefont

Element Type: Structural (head), empty

Description: Denotes a base font.

Example:

<basefont color="#ff0000" size="4" face="Arial" />

Tips: This is a deprecated element and, therefore, should not be used in XHTML 1.0 strict, but it may be used in XHTML 1.0.

Element: bdo

Description: Denotes bidirectional text. Its primary usage is in internationalization, to denote text that is running in a different direction.

Element Type: Inline, nonempty

Example:


<bdo lang="he" dir="rtl">I would enter Hebrew characters here and they would appear right
 to left.</bdo>
  


Tips: This element is well supported in contemporary browsers. CSS allows for bidirectional styling also.
Element: big
Description: Presentational element used to format a large text style
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<big>This text will appear bigger than default body text</big>


Tips: Very wide support exists, but use of this element should be restricted because it is a presentational element and CSS provides an alternative.
Element: blockquote
Description: Used for quotations
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<blockquote>"To be or not to be, that is the question."</blockquote>


Tips: Very wide support exists. This element is often used for presentation because browsers will format block quotes with margins, but this usage should be avoided. Instead, use CSS to achieve margins and padding for any element.
Element: body
Description: Denotes the portion of any nonframeset XHTML document that contains the content to be displayed
Element Type: Structural (document), nonempty
Example:

<body>All content for the page goes here </body>


Tips: No tips are known.
Element: br
Description: Forces a line break
Element Type: Block, empty
Example:

To break my line<br />

A break is fine.


Tips: In some older browsers, a trailing slash appearing immediately after the last character in empty elements can cause rendering problems. Placing a space between the last character of the element and the trailing slash solves this problem.
Element: button
Description: Allows for the inclusion of an image-based button in forms
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<button type="submit" id="button" value="clicked">
<img src="images/submit.gif" width="50" height="30" alt="submit" />
</button>


Tips: Wide support exists for this element, with the exception of Netscape 4.x browsers.
Element: caption
Description: Declares a caption in tables. It is especially helpful for accessibility purposes.
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example:

<caption>This is the Table's purpose</caption>


Tips: This element is widely supported but will render differently across browser version and types.
Element: center
Description: A presentational element used to center text or other content on a page
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<center>This text will now be centered on the page</center>


Tips: This is a presentational element and should be avoided in favor of CSS.
Element: cite
Description: Denotes a citation or reference to another source
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

He said <cite>"Don't cry honey, it's only spilt milk!"</cite> but she kept crying anyway.


Tips: Widely supported, this element should be used for inline quotations, citations, and references. Most browsers will style this element with italics, but using CSS, you can modify that to your liking.
Element: code
Description: Denotes code samples
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

The <code>code</code> element is used to denote code items that appear inline.


Tips: Very widely supported, this element is typically displayed in most browsers using a monospaced font.
Element: col
Description: Defines and controls the appearance of a column within a column group; useful for making tables more accessible.
Element Type: Inline, empty
Example:

<col span="2" align="right" />


Tips: This element is unreliable in many browsers, and because it is most often used for presentation, contemporary practices suggest using a well-structured table and CSS for more consistent results.
Element: colgroup
Description: Denotes a column group within a table
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<table>
<colgroup align="center" span="2"></colgroup>
<colgroup valign="bottom"></colgroup>;
<tr>
<td>column one, spans two columns, is centered.</td>
<td>column two, part of the two column span, is centered</td>
<td>column three, aligned to the bottom</td>
</tr>
</table>


Tips: This element is unreliable in many browsers and is most often used for grouping columns for presentational reasons. The presentation is best handled by CSS for consistent results.
Element: dd
Description: Creates a definition list description
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<dl>
   <dt>XHTML</dt>
   <dd>Extensible Hypertext Markup Language</dd>
</dl>


Tips: This element is very widely supported and, sadly, underused.
Element: del
Description: Denotes deleted text, usually from a previous version of the same document or in a document that's being edited
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<del>This text is to be deleted</del>


Tips: Unsupported in Netscape 4.x, this element typically appears with a strikethrough in supporting browsers.
Element: dfn
Description: Describes a term the first time it's used in a document
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<dfn>XHTML</dfn> is the Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.


Tips: Unsupported in Netscape 4.x, this element is otherwise well supported. It is typically interpreted by the browser as italics.
Element: dir
Description: Defines a directory list
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<dir>
<li>Item one</li>
<li>Item two</li>
<li>Item three</li>
</dir>


Tips: Widely supported, this a deprecated element in favor of the ul element and so should be avoided.
Element: div
Description: Denotes divisions within a document. It is used primarily as a means to identify sections of a document that can then be positioned and styled with CSS.
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<div id="content">
This section will contain the document's primary content.
</div>


Tips: Very good support exists. This is one of the primary elements used to manage effective styling of page divisions.
Element: dl
Description: Denotes a list of definition terms
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<dl>
   <dt>XHTML</dt>
   <dd>Extensible Hypertext Markup Language</dd>
</dl>


Tips: This element is very well supported.
Element: dt
Description: Denotes the term to be defined
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example: See dl.
Tips: This element is very well supported.
Element: em
Description: A structural, nonempty, inline element used to denote text that is emphasized
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<em>This text is marked up as emphasized text.</em>


Tips: This element is very broadly supported. Although browsers will typically display emphasized text as italic, this is a convention. The em element is not considered presentational.
Element: fieldset
Description: Provides a means to group form labels and controls that are related. Used for accessibility.
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<form>
<fieldset>
<input type="text" id="firstname" value="firstname" />
<input type="text" id="lastname" value="lastname" />
</fieldset>
</form>


Tips: No Netscape 4.x support exists, but otherwise, this element is well supported in contemporary browsers. Most browsers will style the content of a fieldset with a border.
Element: font
Description: Enables a document author to add fonts to the document
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<font face="Arial" color="blue" size="2">This will appear as Arial blue text one size
 smaller than the default text</font>
  


Tips: This is a deprecated element, and although it is allowed in XHTML 1.0 Transitional, it should be avoided.
Element: form
Description: Denotes a form
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<form>
<input type="text" id="firstname" value="firstname" />
<input type="text" id="lastname" value="lastname" />
</form>


Tips: Typically, you will need to point to a script for forms processing. These scripts vary greatly; check with your service provider should you require more information as to scripts that are specific to your environment.
Element: frame
Description: Defines a frame within a frameset document. It can be used only with the frameset DTD, and it replaces the body element in that document type.
Element Type: Structural (frames), empty
Example:

<frame src="frame1.html" id="frame1" scrolling="no" />


Tips: Support exists in all modern browsers. This element must be used within a frameset, with a frameset DOCTYPE.
Element: frameset
Description: Defines a frameset, the control of a frame-based site
Element Type: Structural (frames), nonempty
Example:

<frameset cols="30%,100%" scrolling="auto">
   <frame src="nav.html">
   <frame src="content.html" />
   <frame src="frame3.html" />
</frameset>


Tips: Support exists in all contemporary browsers. This element is available only in the frameset DTD.
Element: h1H6
Description: Used for headers, level 16
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<h1>Welcome to the site that does it all!</h1>


Tips: This element is extremely well supported. Headers should be used semantically for well-structured documents, not to control header sizing. H1 is considered the most important header on a page, akin to a chapter title. Many professional authors advocate using only one incidence of h1 in any document, but this isn't a hard and fast rule.
Element: head
Description: Denotes the head portion of a document. This is a required element within all XHTML documents and must contain a title element within it. The head portion of the document is used to define the page title and can be used for the meta, link, style, and script elements.
Element Type: Structural (document), nonempty
Example:

<head>
<title>The title element must always appear within a head element</title>
</head>


Tips: Some much older browsers will display style or script information if it's not contained within comments, but this occurs rarely anymore.
Element: hr
Description: Displays a horizontal rule
Element Type: Block, empty
Example:

I want to separate my text with a rule, so I'll place a horizontal rule element after.

<hr />


Tips: This element is very well supported. Many markup experts suggest avoiding the use of horizontal rules and relying on CSS to style a bottom border for the element in question; this gives more flexibility and control over the appearance of the rule.
Element: html
Description: Considered the root element of all HTML and XHTML documents. It is the "ancestor" elementall elements in an HTML or XHTML document are descendants of the root.
Element Type: Structural (document), nonempty
Example:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title></title>
</head>
<body>
</body>
</html>


Tips: This element is very well supported. In XHTML, the opening tag must always contain the xmlns (XML namespace) attribute. Some HTML editors do not include this, and not having it will cause an otherwise valid document to not validate.
Element: i
Description: A presentational element that is used to create italicized text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<i>This text will appear as italicized.</i>


Tips: This element is available in XHTML transitional and strict DTDs, but purists recommend avoiding it in favor of the em element, which is considered structural rather than presentational.
Element: iframe
Description: Creates an inline frame
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<iframe src="about.html" width="100"
height="100" id="message">
</iframe>


Tips: The iframe element is supported by all contemporary browsers but is not supported by Netscape versions prior to 7.0.
Element: img
Description: Calls an image
Element Type: Inline, empty
Example:

<img src="images/domain.gif" width="150" height="200" alt="Sample picture" />


Tips: This element is very widely supported but is expected to be deprecated in XHTML 2.0 in favor of the object element, which becomes ubiquitous for all objects in that language.
Element: input
Description: Used within forms to denote a form control such as text box
Element Type: Inline, empty
Example:

<input type="text" id="firstname" value="firstname" />


Tips: Very broad support exists for this element.
Element: ins
Description: Denotes inserted text within the document
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<ins>Inserted text here.</ins>


Tips: No support exists in Netscape 4.x, but this element is well supported in all contemporary browsers. It typically displays as underlined text.
Element: isindex
Description: Used by web authors to provide a line of input to search an index. Also, marks a document as part of the searchable index.
Element Type: Block, empty
Example:

<isindex />


Tips: Very widespread support exists for this element. It is deprecated in XHTML, so it can't be used in strict documents. The preference now is to use a form with search engine software. Typically it displays the text "This is a searchable index. Enter search keywords:", followed by a searchable text box.
Element: kbd
Description: Defines text that the reader should input via the keyboard
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

Please type the following into your practice document: <kbd>Hello, World!</kbd>


Tips: This element is very widely supported and typically displays the text in a monospaced font.
Element: label
Description: Enables authors to label form controls. This is especially useful for accessibility purposes.
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<label for="fullname"><input type="text" id="fullname" /></label>


Tips: This element is supported in all contemporary browsers, and is also supported in Netscape 4.x.
Element: legend
Description: Provides a caption for fieldsets within forms
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<form>
<fieldset>
<legend>Personal Info</legend>
<input type="text" id="firstname" value="firstname" />
<input type="text" id="lastname" value="lastname" />
</fieldset>
</form>


Tips: This element is not available in Netscape 4.x but is supported in most contemporary browsers.
Element: li
Description: Denotes individual list items within ordered and unordered lists
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<ul>
<li>By default, unordered list items display with a bullet.</li>
</ul>


Tips: No known support issues for this element.
Element: link
Description: Links to related files, such as an external style sheet from the head portion of a document
Element Type: Structural (head), nonempty
Example:

<link href="my.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />


Tips: This element is well supported in all browsers with at least some CSS support.
Element: map
Description: Denotes an image map
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<map name="map2">
<area shape="rect" href="http://www.domain.com/" coords="0,0,10,20" />
<area shape="circle" href="http://www.pearson.com/" coords="0,10,8" />
<area shape="poly" href="http://www.google.com/" coords="10,0,20,10,0,10" />
</map>
<img src="images/map.gif" usemap="#map2" />


Tips: Wide support exists in all contemporary browsers.
Element: menu
Description: Creates a single-column menu list
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<menu>
<li>option one</li>
<li>option two</li>
<li>option three</li>
</menu>


Tips: This element is widely supported but deprecated in favor of the ul element.
Element: meta
Description: Manages a wide range of metadata in HTML and XHTML documents
Element Type: Structural (head), empty
Example:

<meta name="description" content="Enter your description here" />


Tips: This element always appears in the head element of a document.
Element: noframes
Description: Used in frameset documents only. Its purpose is to allow document authors to add a section within the frameset that will be viewable in browsers without frames support or for folks using assistive technology devices to access frame-based sites.
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<frameset cols="30%,100%" scrolling="auto">
<frame src="nav.html">
<frame src="content.html" />
<frame src="frame3.html" />
<noframes>
It appears your browser does not support frames. Please use this <a href="noframes
.html">version</a> for access to the content.
</noframes>
</frameset>


Tips: This element is very widely supported and should be used in all frameset documents to assist individuals without access to frames.
Element: noscript
Description: Provides alternate content to browsers that don't support JavaScript
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<script src="scripts/myscript.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
<noscript>
Your browser either does not support JavaScript, or you have it disabled, thank you.
</noscript>


Tips: This element is widely supported and should be used to provide information regarding script support to those who do not have an enabled browser or who have their JavaScript disabled for some reason.
Element: object
Description: Defines any external object. It is currently used primarily for Flash, video, audio, and Java applets, but it will become ubiquitous in XHTML 2.0 for all external objects, including images.
Element Type: Special (can be block or inline, depending upon context), nonempty
Example:

<object codebase="http://www.domain.com/java/classes" classid="FunApplet.class" width="50"
 height="100">Applet</object>
  


Tips: This element should be used wherever possible in place of the applet element, which is deprecated in favor of object. The embed element, which is a wholly proprietary element and does not appear in any specification, should be replaced by object or, when backward compatibility is necessary, used along with embed.
Element: ol
Description: Denotes an ordered list. Without styling, the default behavior in browsers is to begin with the numeral 1. This can be modified using CSS properties (See Appendix B, "CSS 2.1 Annotated Reference").
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<ol>
<li>This is the first item in the list</li>
<li>This is the second item in the list</li>
</ol>


Tips: This element is widely supported and should be used in all logical circumstances in which a sequential list is required.
Element: optgroup
Description: Enables you to group options within form select menus
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<form>
<select id="browsers">
<option>Name your favorite web browser</option>
<optgroup label="standards-compliant">
<option>Mozilla</option>
<option>Firefox</option>
<option>Safari</option>
<option>Opera</option>
</optgroup>
<optgroup label="needs-updating">
<option>Internet Explorer</option>
<option>AOL</option>
</optgroup>
</select>
</form>


Tips: This element is supported only in contemporary browsers such as IE 6.0, Mozilla, and Mozilla Firefox. It is very helpful for accessibility and general comprehension, so it is recommended for use. If a browser doesn't support the element, the option list will still display and function properly.
Element: option
Description: Describes the individual options within a form menu
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example: Please see optgroup element.
Tips: This element is widely supported.
Element: p
Description: Denotes a paragraph of text
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<p>This is a paragraph of text.</p>


Tips: This element is supported in all known browsers.
Element: param
Description: Specifies values for applets and objects
Element Type: Structural (object), empty
Example:

<object codebase="http://www.domain.com/java/classes" classid="FunApplet.class" width="50"
 height="100">
<param name="FunStuff" value="lgh" />
Fun Stuff Java Applet</object>
  


Tips: This element is widely supported and often required by the object in question to perform properly.
Element: pre
Description: An extremely useful element that denotes a section where all text, carriage returns, and whitespace will be interpreted by the browser
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<pre>

This text will
appear   with    all the spaces

and carriage returns intact.

</pre>


Tips: This element is very widely supported. It is most often used to display longer chunks of code. It displays in a monospaced font in almost all browsers.
Element: q
Description: Defines short quotations inline
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<q>Don't put all your eggs in one basket.</q>


Tips: All contemporary browsers support the q element, although how they display the tagged text differs. In some browsers, quotation marks are added; in others, no change occurs. You can use CSS to modify the look.
Element: s
Description: Displays the text with a line through it (strikethrough)
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<q>Don't put all your <s>eggs</s> hopes in one basket.</q>


Tips: This element is widely supported but deprecated in favor of style sheets, which can accomplish the same results with more control.
Element: samp
Description: Shows sample output from scripts or other programs
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

<p>Enter the following text into your code: <samp>Hello, World!</samp></p>


Tips: This element is widely supported and useful for displaying sample code inline because most browsers will display the contained text in a monospaced font.
Element: script
Description: Embeds or links to scripts, typically JavaScript
Element Type: Structural (head), nonempty
Example:

<script type="text/javascript">(javascript code here)</script>

<script href="myscript.js"></script>


Tips: This element is very widely supported.
Element: select
Description: Creates an option menu within forms
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<form>
<select name="browsers">
<option>Your favorite browser:</option>
<option>IE</option>
<option>Mozilla / Firefox</option>
<option>Opera</option>
<option>Safari</option>
</select>
</form>


Tips: This element is widely supported.
Element: small
Description: Presentational element for rendering text smaller than the default browser text size
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

What do you know - <small>this text will appear smaller</small> than the surrounding text.


Tips: Use CSS in place of the small element for greater type size control.
Element: span
Description: Inline generic container for text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

In this paragraph <span style="color: blue; font-weight: bold;">I've styled this text<
/span> differently than the surrounding text.
  


Tips: Widely supported, this element is used primarily to apply style inline. The span element is under scrutiny by markup purists, who feel that other elements such as q or cite or code are better for marking up text that has a specific significance.
Element: strike
Description: Creates strikethrough text (just like the s element)
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

Don't put all your <strike>eggs</strike> dreams in one basket.


Tips: This element is widely supported, but CSS is favored over it for applying strikethrough text styles.
Element: strong
Description: Structural element to denote a strongly emphasized portion of text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

I want to <strong>shout out the good news</strong> for everyone to hear!


Tips: Widespread support exists. strong is favored over the b element. Both typically display the text as bold, by default.
Element: style
Description: Denotes a section of embedded style
Element Type: Structural (head), nonempty
Example:

<style type="text/css">
h1 {font-family: Arial, font-size: 1.5em; color: #000;}
</style>


Tips: This element is supported in all browsers with any measure of CSS support. Although embedded style can be very useful in certain situations, external style is recommended for better document management.
Element: sub
Description: Describes subscript text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

What do you know - <sub>this text will appear as subscript</sub> that is, lower than the
 surrounding text.
  


Tips: This element is very widely supported.
Element: sup
Description: Describes superscript text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

On the 24<sup>th</sup> of June, my niece got married to the nicest guy!


Tips: This element is very widely supported.
Element: table
Description:
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<table>
<tr>
<th>Table header</th>
<td>Table cell</td>
<td>Another table cell</td>
</tr>
</table>


Tips: Very widely supported, the table element is ideally used structurallythat is, to describe tabular datarather than as a tool for layout. You can use CSS to manage all aspects of a table's presentation.
Element: tbody
Description: Groups rows within tables. It is useful when making tables more accessible.
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example:

<table>
<tr>
<th>Table header</th>
<td>Table cell</td>
<td>Another table cell</td>
</tr>
<tbody id="row2">
<tr>
<th>Table header</th>
<td>Table cell</td>
<td>Another table cell</td>
</tr>
<tbody>
</table>


Tips: This element is available in contemporary browsers only. It is useful when breaking up sections of a table to make them more comprehensible.
Element: td
Description: Contains the content for a table column
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example: See table and tbody.
Tips: This element is very widely supported.
Element: textarea
Description: Creates multiple-line text areas within forms
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<form>
<textarea name="feedback" rows="2" cols="25">This text will appear within the text area<
/textarea>
</form>

  


Tips: Very broad support exists for this element.
Element: tfoot
Description: Defines a footer row section within a table
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example:

<tfoot>
<tr>
<th>Table header</th>
<td>Table cell</td>
<td>Another table cell</td>
</tr>
</tfoot>


Tips: This element is available in contemporary browsers and is used for enhanced accessibility.
Element: th
Description: Table header for table data columns
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example: See table and tbody.
Tips: Very broadly supported, this element is essential when creating structural data tables. Default display is typically bold and centered, although this can easily be modified with CSS.
Element: thead
Description: Defines the table head portion within a multirow table
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example:

<thead>
<tr>
<th>Table header</th>
<td>Table cell</td>
<td>Another table cell</td>
</tr>
</thead>


Tips: Support is limited to contemporary browsers only, used to enhance accessibility and comprehension within multirow tables.
Element: title
Description: Denotes a page title within the browser's title bar
Element Type: Structural (head), nonempty
Example:

<title>Welcome to Domain.Com!</title>


Tips: This element is very widely supported. It must be present within the head portion of the document for the document to validate.
Element: tr
Description: Creates a table row
Element Type: Structural (table), nonempty
Example: See table and tbody.
Tips: This element is very widely supported.
Element: tt
Description: Creates teletype text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

In this sentence <tt>these words represent teletype text</tt>.


Tips: This element is broadly supported. It typically displays in a monospaced font and is considered presentational because CSS can easily reproduce this visual style.
Element: u
Description: Presentational element used to underline text
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

In this sentence, <u>these words are underlined</u>.


Tips: This element is very widely supported, although use of CSS is preferred. Many experts advise against using underlines because people tend to confuse underlined text onscreen as being linked text.
Element: ul
Description: Creates an unordered list
Element Type: Block, nonempty
Example:

<ul>
<li>List item one</li>
<li>List item two</li>
</ul>


Tips: Very wide support exists. Unordered lists are displayed with a bullet by default, although this can be modified using CSS.
Element: var
Description: Indicates a variable
Element Type: Inline, nonempty
Example:

Locate for the <var>book.php</var> file before continuing.


Tips: This element is rarely used, but has wide browser support.

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