# Tutorial 2

1. What is the definition of a bus in a computer?

A computer bus is a group of electrical conductors (usually wires) running parallel to each other. These conductors can be copper traces on a circuit board or wires in a cable. Usually, they are found in multiples of eight (8, 16, 32, 64, and so on).

2. What is the purpose of the computer bus?

The purpose of the computer bus is to provide a common path to transmit information, in the form of code, to all parts of the computer.

3. Define the term "digital."

Digital, as it is used in this tutorial, refers to the binary digits 0 (off) and 1 (on).

4. Describe the difference between serial and parallel communication.

Serial communication sends each piece of information one bit at a time on one wire, and parallel communication sends as many bits of information at a time as there are parallel wires.

5. What is binary code language?

Binary code language is computer language. The language is called binary because it is based on two states or numbers (0 and 1) represented by a switch condition being set either on or off.

6. How does ASCII use binary code to represent numbers or characters?

Computers use the binary system for communication, based on eight bits (or one byte) of information being transmitted at one time. To support this, a standard code called ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) was developed as the basis for computer communication. Basic ASCII consisted of 128 binary codes that represented the English alphabet, punctuation, and certain control characters.

7. Define a bit.

A bit is the smallest unit of information that is recognized by a microcomputer. It is similar to a light bulb in that it can exist only in two states-it is either on or it is off.

8. Define a byte.

A byte is a group of eight bits. To represent one character of information requires one byte.

9. Which decimal number does the following binary number represent: 00001001?

This binary number represents the number 9.

10. What do 1s and 0s represent in computer operation?

1s and 0s represent voltage to a computer: the absence of voltage represents a 0 bit, and the presence of voltage represents a 1 bit.

11. Computer buses are usually found in multiples of _______ wires or traces.

Computer buses are usually found in multiples of 8 wires or traces.