PC Hardware

Table of Acronyms

Following are many of the acronyms used in these tutorials. Be aware that-as with all acronyms-some have more than one meaning, depending on the context.

AC Alternating current
AGP Accelerated Graphics Port
ALU Arithmetic logic unit
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASPI Advanced SCSI Programming Interface
BBS Bulletin board system
BIOS Basic input/output system
BPS (bps) Bits per second
CAM Common Access Method
CCITT Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique
CD-ROM Compact disc read-only memory
CGA Color/Graphics Adapter
CHS Cylinder head sector
CISC Complex instruction set computing
CMOS Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
COM port Serial communications port
CPU Central processing unit
CRT Cathode-ray tube
DC Direct current
DDE Dynamic Data Exchange
DIMM Dual inline memory module
DIPP Dual inline pin package
DLL Dynamic link library
DMA Direct memory access
DOS Disk operating system
dpi Dots per inch
DPMI MS-DOS Protected Mode Interface
DPMS Display Power Management Signaling
DRAM Dynamic random access memory
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
DVD Digital video disc
EDB External data bus
EDO Extended data out
EGA Enhanced Graphics Adapter
EIDE Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
EISA Extended Industry Standard Architecture
EMI Electromagnetic interference
EMS Expanded Memory Specification
ESD Electrostatic discharge
ESDI Enhanced Small Device Interface
ETX End-of-text
FAT File allocation table
FPM Fast-page mode
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GB Gigabyte
GDI Graphical Device Interface
GPF General Protection Fault
GUI Graphical user interface
HMA High memory area
HRR Horizontal refresh rate
HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol
I/O Input/output
IDE Integrated Drive Electronics or Integrated Device Electronics
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IOR Input/output read wire
IOW Input/output write wire
IP Internet Protocol
IPX/SPX Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
IRQ Interrupt request
ISA Industry Standard Architecture
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO International Organization for Standardization (often incorrectly identified as International Standardization Organization)
ISP Internet service provider
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector
KB Kilobyte
LAN Local area network
LBA Logical Block Addressing
LIM Lotus/Intel/Microsoft
LPT Line printer
MB Megabyte
MCA Micro Channel Architecture
MCC Memory controller chip
MDA Monochrome Display Adapter
MDRAM Multibank DRAM
MFM Modified frequency modulation
MHz Megahertz
MOS Metal-oxide semiconductor
MSD Microsoft Diagnostics
MTBF Mean time between failures
NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification
NetBIOS/NetBEUI Networked Basic Input/Output System/NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface
NIC Network interface card
NTSC National Television Standards Committee
OLE Object linking and embedding
PC Personal Computer
PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect
PDI Post DMA-IRQ card
PDL Page-description language
PGA Pin grid array or Professional Graphics Adapter
PIO Programmed Input/Output
PLCC Plastic leadless chip carrier
PM Preventive maintenance
POST Power-on self test
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
PPP Point-to-Point Protocol
PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol
PQFP Plastic Quad Flat Pack
RAID Redundant array of independent disks
RAM Random access memory
RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing
RLL Run-length limited
ROM Read-only memory
SCSI Small Computer System Interface
SDRAM Synchronous dynamic random access memory
SGRAM Synchronous Graphics RAM
SIMM Single inline memory module
SIPP Single inline pin package
SMM System Management Mode
SPA Software Publishers Association
SRAM Static random access memory
TB Terabyte
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TSR Terminate-and-stay-resident program
UART Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter
UMB Upper memory block
UPS Uninterruptible power supply
USB Universal serial bus
VESA Video Electronics Standards Association
VGA Video Graphics Adapter
VLB VESA local bus
VOM Volt ohm meter
VPN Virtual private network
VRR Vertical refresh rate
WAN Wide area network
WRAM Window random access memory
XMS Extended memory specification
ZIF Zero insertion force