the form of energy associated with moving electrons and protons.

the energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor.

For our discussion, we mostly talk about the flow of energy used to run computers-electrical energy-and not worry about the fine points of scientific philosophy.

### Some Definitions

For our discussion we employ the following definitions:

Electricity: The form of energy associated with charged particles, usually electrons.

Electric Charge: When charged particles move in tandem, fields are generated, producing energy.

Electrical Circuit: The path taken by an electrical charge.

Electric Current: When an electric charge is carried, or flows through a conductor (like wires), it is known as a current. A current-carrying wire is a form of electromagnet. Electric current is also known as electron flow.

Power: The rate at which an amount of energy is used to accomplish work. Electrical power is measured in watts, which is determined by multiplying voltage by current.

Conductors: Materials that can carry an electrical current. Most conductors are metals.

Resistance: A quality of some materials that allows them to slow the speed of an electrical current, producing heat, and sometimes light, in the process.

Insulators: Materials that prevent or retard the electrical current of electrons.

Ampere: A measurement of current strength, equal to 1 Coulomb per second. Coulomb's Law: two charges will exert equal and opposite forces on each other. Opposite charges attract and like charges repel.

Ohm: A unit of electrical resistance. Ohm's Law states that voltage is equal to the product of the current times the resistance, or Voltage = Current x Resistance.

Volt: The unit of electromotive force, or potential energy, that when steadily applied against a resistance of 1 ohm, produces a current of 1 ampere.

Voltage: The potential energy of a circuit.